0   to   500 ;   Church Fathers and Councils    0   to  500 ;   Church Fathers and Councils


33 AD     Crucifixion of Jesus
34 AD     The first Pentecost
64 AD     Fire ravages Rome. Emperor Nero blames Christians and unleashes persecution.
70 AD     Titus destroys Jerusalem and its temple. Separation deepens between Christianity and Judaism.
100 (approx) Clement Bishop of Rome. Traditional author of several letters, which assert apostolic succession.
110 (approx) Ignatius Bishop of Antioch and Martyr Author of seven letters, advocating episcopal supremacy.
150 (approx) Justin Martyr writes his First Apology, advancing Christian efforts to address competing philosophies.
156 (approx) Polycarp, an eighty-six-year-old bishop, inspires Christians to stand firm under opposition.
177     Irenaeus becomes bishop of Lyons and combats heresies within the Church, particularly Gnosticism
196 (approx) Tertullian begins writings that earn him the reputation of being the "Father of Latin Theology
205 (aaprox) Origen begins writing. He led the school in Alexandria and taught subordination of the Son to the Father.
220     Sabellius, condemned as a heretic for ideas that conflict with Trinitarian conceptions.
251     Cyprian, bishop of Carthage, publishes his work on Unity of the Church.He was martyred in 258.
275     Paul of Samosta, bishop of Antioch 260-275. a follower of Origen's ideas on God and "Adoptionism".
300     Arius defies current doctrine of the equality between God and Jesus, saying that Jesus had a beginning.
312     Constantine is converted after seeing a vision of the cross. He becomes a defender and advocate of the oppressed Christians
314     Eusebius, bishop of Casesarea in 314. a follower of Origen's ideas in opposition to Anathasius.
325    The Council of Nicea addresses conflicts inthe Church and defines the doctrine of who Jesus.
367     Athanasius recognizes the New Testament Canon, listing the same books we have now.
385     In Milan, Bishop Ambrose defies the Empress, helping establish the precedent of Church confrontation of the state.
387     Augustine of Hippo is converted. His writings became bedrock for the Middle Ages.
398     John Chrysostom , the "golden tongued" preacher is made bishop of Constantinople - controversy!
418     Pelagius executed for denying the doctrine of original sin.
405     Jerome completes the Latin "Vulgate" version of the bible that becomes the standard for the next one thousand years.
432     Patrick goes as a missionary to Ireland--taken there as a teenager as a slave.
451     The Council of Chalcedon confirms orthodox teaching that Jesus was truly God and truly man and existed in one person.
         500 to 1000 ;   Monasteries and Popes   500 to 1000 ;   Monasteries and Popes


529    Benedict of Nursia establishes his monastic order which becomes the most influential for centuries of monasticism in the West.
563    Columba goes as a missionary to Scotland. He establishes the legendary monastic mission center at Iona
590     Gregory becomes Pope Gregory I, known as "the Great." His leadership advances the development of the papacy in Europe.
664     Synod of Whitby determines that the English church will come under the authority of Rome.
716     Boniface, the "Apostle of Germany," sets out as a missionary to bring the gospel to pagan lands
731     The "Venerable" Bede completes his careful and influential Ecclesiastical History of the English Nation
732     At the Battle of Tours, Charles Martel turns back the Muslim invasion of Europe.
800     Charlemagne crowned emperor by the pope on Christmas. He advances the church, education, and culture
863     Cyril and Methodius, Greek brothers, evangelize the Serbs. Cyril develops the Cyrillic alphabet
which remains the basis for the Slavonic used in the liturgy of the Russian church.
909     A monastery is established at Cluny and becomes a center for reform. By the mid-12th century, there were over 1,000 Clunaic houses.
988     Conversion of Vladimir, Prince of Kiev, who chooses Orthodoxy to unify and guide the Russian people
       1000 to 1500 ;   Crusades and Schisms 1000 to 1500 :   Crusades and Schisms

1054     The East-West Schism finally comes to a head with the fissure that has lasted to this day.
1093     Anselm becomes Archbishop of Canterbury. A devoted monk and outstanding theologian,
    his Cur Deus Homo? (Why Did God Become Man?), explored the atonement.
1095     Pope Urban II launches the First Crusade. The crowd wildly shouts "God wills it!"
    There would be several crusades over the next centuries with many tragic results.
1115     Bernard founds the monastery at Clairvaux. He and the monastery become a major center of spiritual and political influence.
1150 (approx) Universities of Paris and Oxford are founded and become incubators for renaissance and reformation
1173     Peter Waldo founds the Waldensians, a reform movement emphasizing poverty, preaching and the Bible.
    He and his followers are eventually condemned as heretics and the Waldensians suffer great persecution for centuries.
1206     Francis of Assisi renounces wealth and goes on to lead a band of poor friars preaching the simple life.
1215     The Fourth Lateran Council deals with heresy, reaffirms Roman Catholic doctrines and strengthens the authority of the popes.
1273     Thomas Aquinas completes work on Summa Theoligica, the theological masterpiece of the Middle Ages.
1321    Dante completes The Divine Comedy, the greatest work of Christian iterature to emerge from the Middle Ages.
1378    Catherine of Siena goes to Rome to help heal the "Great Papal Schism" which had resulted in multiple popes.
    Partly through her influence, the papacy moves back to Rome from Avignon.
1380    Wycliffe is exiled from Oxford but oversees a translation of the Bible into English.
    He is later hailed as the "Morning star of the Reformation."
1415    John Hus, who teaches Wycliffe's ideas in Bohemia, is condemned and burned at the stake by the Council of Constance.
1456    Johann Gutenberg produces the first printed Bible, and his press becomes a means for dissemination new ideas,
    catalyzing changes in politics and theology.
1478    The Spanish Inquisition is established under King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella to oppose "heresy."
1498    Savonarola, the fiery Dominican reformer of Florence, in Italy, is executed.


       1500 to 1700 :   Reformation 1500 to 1700 :   Reformation

1509 Erasmus "lays the egg that Luther hatched" in his Bible translation and writing.
1517 Martin Luther posts his ninety-five theses, a simple invitation for scholarly debate that inadvertently becomes a "hinge of history."
    His challenge to the sale of indulgences undermined the financing of the church, so generating massive opposition.
1523 Zwingli leads the Swiss reformation from his base as head pastor in Zurich.
1525 The Anabaptist movement begins. This "radical reformation" insists on baptism of adult believers
    and the almost unheard of notion of separation of church and state.
1534 Henry VIII's Act of Supremacy makes the king, not the pope, head of the Church of England.
1536 John Calvin publishes The Institutes of the Christian Religion, the most substantial theological work of the Reformation.
1540 The Society of Jesus is approved by the Vatican. Founded by Ignatius Loyola.
1543 Copernicus showed that the earth moved round the sun, undermining biblical inerrancy. His ideas were condemned by the church
1545 The Council of Trent opens to address abuses in the Catholic Counter-Reformation.
1549 Cranmer produces the beloved Book of Common Prayer for the Church of England.
1559 John Knox returns to Scotland to lead reformation there after exile in Calvin's Geneva.
1572 The Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre in France. Tens of thousands of Protestant Huguenots killed by Catholics.
1608 Anglican preacher turned Separatist, John Smith, baptizes the first "Baptists."
1611 Publication of the Authorized or King James translation of the Bible in the English language.
    Fifty-four scholars worked for four years on the project.
1646 The Westminster Confession is drafted in the Jerusalem Room at Westminster Abbey.
1648 George Fox founds the Society of Friends, more commonly known as "Quakers."
1675 German Lutheran minister Philip Jacob Spener publishes Pia Desideria which becomes a manifesto for "Pietism."
1685 Johann Sebastian Bach and George Frederick Handel born. Musical giants centred on Biblical aspects
       1700 to 1900 :   Enlightenment 1700 to 1900 :   Enlightenment

...see also. The Age of Enlightenment
... and Recent Christian History
THE EARLY ENLIGHTENMENT
(when man began to look beyondsuperstition and to use his reason to discover the world.
1685... Isaac Newton (1643-1727) An Arian theolgian as well as a famous mathematician
1689... John Locke published A Letter Concerning Toleration.
1724... Immanuel Kant, who defined the Enlightenment as human emergence from immaturity.
1727... Awakening at Herrnhut launches Moravian Brethren as the forerunner of modern Protestant missionary movements.
THE HIGH ENLIGHTENMENT
1735... The Great Awakening under Jonathan Edwards stirs the American colonies with many conversions.
1738... John Wesley's conversion eventually leads to the founding of the Methodist Church
1745... Friedrich Schleiermacher brought liberal theology and critical study of scripture
THE LATE ENLIGHTENMENT
1793.... William Carey sails as a missionary to India and oversees more Bible translations than had previously been produced .
1830... Charles G. Finney's urban revivals begin and introduce techniques that decisively affect later mass evangelism in America.
1830 (c)... John Nelson Darby helps found the Plymouth Brethren, a group which spreads the dispensational view of Scriptural interpretation.
1833... John Keble's sermon "National Apostasy" initiates the Oxford movement in England.
1854... Hudson Taylor arrives as a missionary in China. His faith work has immense impact.
1854... Philosopher Soron Kierkegaard publishes Attacks on Christendom.
1854... Charles Haddon Spurgeon becomes pastor in London and will go on the be one of the most influential pastors ever.
1855... Dwight L. Moody is converted. He goes on to become one of the most effective American evangelists.
1857... David Livingstone publishes Missionary Travels and his exploits in Africa attract world wide attention.
1865... William Booth founds the Salvation Army, vowing to bring the gospel into the streets to the most desperate and needy.

         1900 to 1940 Fundamentalists and Liberals   1900 to 1940 Fundamentalists and Liberals

1870... Pope Pius IX proclaims the doctrine of Papal Infallibility.
1906... Asuza Street revival launches Pentecostalism, and paves the way for the development of the modern charismatic movement.
1914... Start of the Great War>
1919... Karl Barth's Commentary on Romans is published, effectively critiquing modernistic theology.

         1940 to 2000 The Fruits of World War   1940 to 2000 The Fruits of World War

1945... Dietrich Bonhoeffer is executed by the Nazis just before the Allies arrive. His theological writings remain influential.
1949... Billy Graham's Los Angeles evangelical crusade thrusts him into several decades of worldwide ministry and an impressive reputation.
1960... Charismatic renewal surges forward, crossing denominational lines and becoming more mainstream.
1962... Second Vatican Council begins, the most significant council since Trent. It will promote new attitudes and practices in Catholicism.
1963... Martin Luther King, Jr., a Baptist minister, leads a march on Washington espousing the teachings of Jesus in a civil rights movement that affects all American.
1963... Paul van Buren publishes "The Secular Meaning of the Gospel".
1966... Prophetic Times article "The Death of God" enrages some.
1967... Israel recaptures Jerusalem
1973 ... Roe v. Wade Supreme Court case rules in favor of legalizing abortion 1974.... Lausanne Congress for World Evangelization 1977 ... Focus on the Family founded by James Dobson 1979 ... Mother Teresa wins the Nobel Peace Prize for her struggle to overcome poverty and distress in the world 1990 ....  Gulf War
         2000 to 2025 Empty and Mega Churches    2000 to 2025 Empty and Mega Churches


2001 9/11 Terrorists destroy the world trade centre.
2002 .Bishop John Henry Spong published "A New Christianity for a New World".
2003 Dan Brown publishes "The Da Vinci Code"
2004 The realse of the film " The Passion of Christ" 2005 Election of Pope Benedict XVI and a shift towards traditional values and formality.
2007 The growth of megachurches within Protestantism (up to 40,000 members/weekend)
2013 Pope Francis elected giving a simpler and less formal approach. Attacks consumerism and clericalism.
2016 Pan-Orthodox Council in Crete not attended by Russia, Georgia and Bulgaria.
2016 (onward) Pope Francis attacked by traditionalists on all fronts!
2017 The American Evangelical church backs Donald Trump for the Presidency, despite his reputation.
2018 Orthodox Patriach of Constantinople separates Ukraine from Russian Patriachy.
......(is it relevant, that 4 years later Russia invaded Ukraine?)